Tuesday, July 7, 2015

July 7, 1865: The Execution of the Lincoln Conspirators


On this day 150 years ago, Mary Surratt, Lewis Powell, David Herold, and George Atzerodt were executed for their involvement in the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. The executions were carried out at Fort McNair in Washington, DC. The execution was photographed by Alexander Gardner.

Sunday, July 5, 2015

July 5, 1865: Johnson confirms the sentences of the Lincoln conspirators


On this day 150 years ago, President Andrew Johnson confirmed the sentences of the Lincoln assassination conspirators.
GENERAL

WAR DEPARTMENT,

COURT-MARTIAL ORDERS,

ADJUTANT-GENERAL'S OFFICE,

Numbers 356.

Washington, July 5, 1865.

I. Before a military commission which convened at Washington, D. C., May 9, 1865, pursuant to paragraph 4 of Special Orders, No. I 211, dated May 6, 1865, and paragraph 91 of Special Orders, Numbers 216, dated May 9, 1865, War Department, Adjutant General's Office, Washington, and of which Major General David Hunter, U. S. Volunteers, is president, were arraigned and tried--

David E. Herold, G. A. Atzerodt, Lewis Payne, Mary E. Surratt, Michael O'Laughlin Edward Spangler, Samuel Arnold, and Samuel A. Mudd.

CHARGE I: For maliciously, unlawfully, and traitorously, and in aid of the existing armed rebellion against the United States of America, on or before the 6th day of March, A. D. 1865, and on divers other days between that day and the 15th day of April. A.D. 1865, combining, confederating, and conspiring, together with one John H. Surratt, John Wilkes Booth, Jefferson Davis, George N. Sanders, Beverly Tucker, Jacob Thompson, William C. Cleary, Clement C. Clay, George Harper, George Young and others unknown, to kill and murder, within the Military Department of Washington, and within the fortified and intrenched lines thereof, Abraham Lincoln, late, and at the time of said combining, confederating, and conspiring, President of the United States of America and Commander-in-Chief of the Army and Navy thereof; Andrew Johnson, now Vice-President of the United States aforesaid; William H. Seward, Secretary of State of the United States aforesaid, and Ulysses S. Grant, lieutenant-general of the Army of the United States aforesaid, then in command of the Armies of the United States, under the direction of the said Abraham Lincoln; and in pursuance of and in pursuance of and in prosecuting said malicious, unlawful, and traitorous conspiracy aforesaid, and in aid of said rebellion, afterward, to wit, on the 14th day of April, A. D. 1865, within the Military Department of Washington aforesaid, and within the fortified and intrenched lines of said military department, together with said John Wilkes booth and John H. Surratt, maliciously, unlawfully, and traitorously murdering the said Abraham Lincoln, then President of the United States, as aforesaid; and lying in wait, with intent maliciously, unlawfully, and traitorously, to kill and murder the said Andrew Johnson, then being Vice-President of the United States; and the said Ulysses S. Grant, then being lieutenant-general and in command of the Armies of the United States, as aforesaid.

Specification 1.-In this, that they, the said David E. Herold, Edward Spangler, Lewis Payne, Michael O'Laughlin, Samuel Arnold, Mary E. Surratt, George A. 
Atzerodt, John Wilkes Booth, incited and encouraged thereunto by Jefferson Davis, George N. Sanders, Beverly Tucker, Jacob Thompson, William C. Cleary, Clement C. Clay, George Harper, George Young, and others unknown, citizens of the United States aforesaid, and who were then engaged in armed rebellion against the United States of America, within the limits thereof, did, in aid of said armed rebellion, on or before the 6th day of March, A. D. 1865, and on divers other days and times between that day and the 15th day of April, A. D. 1865, combine, confederate, and conspire together at Washington City, within the Military Department of Washington, and within the intrenched fortifications and military lines of the said United States, there being, unlawfully, maliciously, and traitorously to kill and murder Abraham Lincoln, then President of the United States aforesaid, and Commander-in-Chief of the Army and Navy thereof; and unlawfully, maliciously, and traitorously to kill and murder Andrew Johnson, now Vice-President of the said United States, upon whom, on the death of said Abraham Lincoln, after the 4th day of March, A. D. 1865, the office of President of the said United States and Commander-in-Chief of the Army and Navy thereof would devolve; and to unlawfully, maliciously, and traitorously kill and murder Ulysses S. Grant, then lieutenant-general, and, under the direction of the said Abraham Lincoln, and traitorously to kill and murder William H. Seward, the Secretary of St5ate of the United States aforesaid, whose duty it was by law, upon the death of said President and Vice-President of the United States aforesaid, to cause an election to be held for electors of President of the United States-the conspirators aforesaid designing and intending by the killing and murder of the said Abraham Lincoln, Andrew Johnson, Ulysses S. Grant, and William H. Seward, as aforesaid, to deprive the Army and Navy of the said United States of a constitutional commander-in-chief; and to deprive the Armies of the United States of their lawful commander, and to prevent a lawful election of President and Vice-President of the United States aforesaid; and by the means aforesaid to aid and comfort the insurgents engaged in armed rebellion against the said United States, as aforesaid, and thereby to aid in the subversion and overthrow of the Constitution and laws of the said United States.

And being so combined, confederate, and conspiring together in the prosecution of said unlawful and traitorous conspiracy on the night of the 14th day of April, A. D. 1865, at the hour of about 10 o'clock and 15 minutes p. m., at Ford's Theater, on Tenth street, in the city of Washington, and within the military department and military lines aforesaid, John Wilkes Booth, one of the conspirators aforesaid, in pursuance of said unlawful and traitorous conspiracy, did, then and there, unlawfully, maliciously, and traitorously, and with intent to kill and murder the said Abraham Lincoln, discharge a pistol, then held in the hands of him, the said Booth, the same being then loaded with powder and a leaden ball, against and upon the left and posterior side of the head of the said Abraham Lincoln; and did thereby, then and there, inflict upon him, the said Abraham Lincoln, then President of the said United States and Commander-in-Chief of the Army and navy thereof, a mortal wound, whereof afterward, to wit, on the 15th day of April, A.D. 1865, at Washington City aforesaid, the said Abraham Lincoln died; and thereby, then and there, and in pursuance of said conspiracy, the said defendants and the said John Wilkes Booth and John H. Surratt did, unlawfully, traitorously, and maliciously, and with the intent to aid the rebellion as aforesaid, kill and murder the said Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States, as aforesaid.

And in further prosecution of the unlawful and traitorous conspiracy aforesaid, and of the murderous and traitorous intent of said conspiracy, the said Edward Spangler, on said 14th day of April, A. D. 1865, at about the same hour of that day, as aforesaid, with said military department and the military lines aforesaid, did aid and assist the said John Wilkes Booth to obtain entrance to the box in said theater in which said Abraham Lincoln was sitting at the time he was assaulted and shot, as aforesaid, by John Wilkes Booth; and also did then and there aid said Booth in barring and obstructing the door of the box of said theater so as to hinder and prevent any assistance to or rescue of the said Abraham Lincoln against the murderous assault of the said John Wilkes Booth, and did and abet him in making his escape after the said Abraham Lincoln had been murdered in manner aforesaid.

And in further prosecution of said unlawful, murderous, and traitorous conspiracy, and in pursuance thereof, as aforesaid, the said Lewis Payne did, on the same night of the 14th day of April, A. D. 1865, about the same hour of 10 o'clock and 15 minutes p. m., at the city of Washington, and within the military department and the military lines aforesaid, unlawfully and maliciously make an assault upon the said William H. Seward, Secretary of State, as aforesaid, in the dwelling-house and bedchamber of him, the said William H. Seward, and the said Payne did then and there, with a large knife, geld in his hand, unlawfully, traitorously, and in pursuance of said conspiracy, strike, stab, cut, and attempt to kill and murder the said William H. Seward, and did thereby, then and there, and with the intent aforesaid, with said knife, held in his hand, unlawfully, traitorously, and in pursuance of said conspiracy, strike, stab, cut, and attempt to kill and murder the said William H. Seward, and did thereby, then and there, and with the intent aforesaid, with said knife inflict upon the face and throat of the said William H. Seward, Augustus H. Seward, Emrick W. Hansell, and George F. Robinson, who were then striving to protect and rescue the said William H. Seward from murder by the said Lewis Payne, and did them and there,with said knife and pistol held in his hands, inflict upon the head of said Frederick W. Seward, and upon the persons of said Augustus H. Seward, Emrick W. Hansell, and George F. Robinson, divers grievous and dangerous wounds with intent, then and there, to kill and murder the said Frederick W. Seward, Augustus H. Seward, Emrick W. Hansell, and George F. Robinson.

And in further prosecution of said conspiracy and its traitorous and murderous designs, the said George A. Atzerodt did, on the night of the 14th of April, A. D. 1865, and about the same hour of the night aforesaid, within the military department and the military lines aforesaid, lie in wait for Andrew Johnson, then Vice-President of the United States aforesaid, with the intent unlawfully and maliciously to kill and murder him, the said Andrew Johnson.

And in the further prosecution of the conspiracy aforesaid, and of its murderous and treasonable purposes aforesaid, on the nights of the 13th and 14th of April, A. D. 1865, at Washington City, and within the military department and military lines aforesaid, the said Michael O'Laughlin did then and there lie in wait for Ulysses S. Grant, then lieutenant-general and commander of the Armies of the United States, as aforesaid, with intent then and there to kill and murder the said Ulysses S. Grant.

And in further prosecution of said conspiracy, the said Samuel Arnold did, within the military department and military lines aforesaid, on or before the 6th day of March, A. D. 1865, and on divers other days and times between that day and the 15th day of April, A. D. 1865, combine, conspire with, and aid, counsel, abet, comfort, and support, the said John Wilkes Booth, Lewis Payne, George A. Atzerodt, Michael O'Laughlin, and their confederates, in said unlawful, murderous, and traitorous conspiracy and in the execution thereof, as aforesaid.

And in further prosecution of the said conspiracy, Mary e. Surratt did, at Washington City, and within the military department and military lines aforesaid, on or before the 6th day of March, A. D. 1865, and on divers other days and times between that day and the 20th day of April, A. D. 1865, receive, entertain, harbor and conceal,aid and assist the said John Wilkes Booth, David E. Herold, Lewis Payne, John H. Surratt, Michael O'Laughlin, George A. Atzerodt, Samuel Arnold, and their confederates, with knowledge of the murderous and traitorous conspiracy aforesaid, and with intent to aid, abet, and assist them in the execution thereof, and in escaping from justice after the murder of the said Abraham Lincoln, as aforesaid.

And in further prosecution of said conspiracy, the said Samuel A. Mudd did, at Washington City, and within the military department and military lines aforesaid, on or before the 6th day of March, A. D. 1865, and on divers other days and times between that day and the 20th day of April, A. D. 1865, advise, encourage, receive, entertain, harbor and conceal, aid and assist the said

ohen Wilkes Booth, David E. Herold, Lewis Payne, John H. Surratt, Michael O'Laughlin, George A. Atzerodt, Mary E. Surratt, and Samuel Arnold, and their confederates, with knowledge of the murderous and traitorous conspiracy aforesaid, and with intent to aid, abet, and assist them in the execution thereof, and in escaping from justice after the murder of said Abraham Lincoln, in pursuance of said conspiracy in manner aforesaid.

To which charge and specification the accused, David E. Herold, G. A. Atzerodt, Lewis Payne, Mary E. Surratt, Michael O'Laughlin, Edward Spangler, Samuel Arnold, and Samuel A. Mudd, pleaded not guilty.

FINDINGS AND SENTENCES.

1. In the case of David E. Herold, the commission, having maturely considered the evidence adduce, finds the accused as follows:

Of the specification, guilty, except combining, confederating, and conspiring with Edward Spangler; as to which part thereof, not guilty.

Of the charge, guilty, except the words of the charge, that he combined, confederated, and conspired with Edward Spangler; as to which part of said charge not guilty.

And the commission does, therefore, sentence him the said David E. Herold, to be hanged by the neck until he be dead, at such time and place ass the President of the United States shall direct, two-thirds of the members of the commission concurring therein.

2. In the case of George A. Atzerodt, the commission, having maturely considered the evidence adduced, finds the accused as follows:

Of the specification, guilty, except combining, confederating, and conspiring with Edward Spangler; of this, not guilty.

And the commission does, therefore, sentence him the said George A. Atzerodt, to be hung by the neck until he be dead, at such time and place as the President of the United States shall direct, two-thirds of the members of the commission concurring therein.

3. In the case of Lewis Payne, the commission, having maturely considered the evidence adduce, finds the accused as follows:

Of the specification, guilty, except combining, confederating, and conspiring with Edward Spangler; of this, not guilty.

And the commission does, therefore, sentence him the said Lewis Payne, to be hung by the neck until he be dead, at such time and place as the President of the United States shall direct, two-thirds of the members of the commission concurring therein.

4. In the case of Mary E. Surratt, the commission, having maturely considered the evidence adduced, finds the accused as follows:

Of the specification, guilty, except as to receiving, entertaining, harboring, and concealing Samuel Arnold and Michael O'Laughlin, and except as to combining, confederating, and conspiring with Edward Spangler; of this, not guilty.

And the commission does, therefore, sentence her the said Mary E. Surratt, to be hung by the neck until she be dead, at such time and place as the President of the United States shall direct, two-thirds of the members of the commission concurring therein.

5. In the case of Michael O'Laughlin, the commission, having maturely considered the evidence adduce, finds the accused as follows:

Of the specification, guilty, except the words thereof as follows: "And in the further prosecution of the conspiracy aforesaid, and of its murderous and treasonable purposes aforesaid, on the nights of the 13th and 14th of April, A. D. 1865, at Washington City, and within the military department and military lines aforesaid, the said Michael O'Laughlin did then and there lie in wait for Ulysses S. Grant, then lieutenant-general and commander of the Armies of the United States, with intent then and there to kill and murder the said Ulysses S. Grant;" of said words not guilty, and except combining, confederating, and conspiring with Edward Spangler; of this, not guilty.

And the commission does, therefore, sentence him, the said Michael O'Laughlin, to be imprisoned at hard labor for life at such penitentiary as the President of the United States shall designate.

6. In the case of Edward Spangler, the commission, having maturely considered the evidence adduced, finds the accused as follows:

Of the specification, not guilty, except as to the words, "The said Edward Spangler, on said 14th day of April, A. D. 1865, at about the same hour of that day, as aforesaid, within said military department and the military lines aforesaid, did aid and abet him (meaning John Wilkes Booth) in making his escape after the said Abraham Lincoln had been murdered in manner aforesaid;" and of these words, guilty.

Of the charge, not guilty, but guilty of having feloniously and traitorously aided and abetted John Wilkes Booth in making his escape after having killed and murdered Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States, as aforesaid.

And the commission does, therefore, sentence him, the said Edward Spangler, to be confined at hard labor for the period of six years, at such penitentiary as the President of the United States shall designate.

7. In the case of Samuel Arnold, the commission, having maturely considered the evidence adduced, finds the accused as follows:

Of the specification, guilty, except combining, confederating, and conspiring with Edward Spangler; of this, not guilty.

And the commission does, therefore, sentence him, the said Samuel Arnold, to be imprisoned at hard labor for life, at such penitentiary as the President of the United States shall designate.

8. In the case of Samuel A. Mudd, the commission, having maturely considered the evidence adduced, finds the accused as follows:

Of the specification, guilty, except combining, confederating, and conspiring with Edward Spangler; of this, not guilty; and except receiving, entertaining, harboring, and concealing Lewis Payne, John H. surratt, Michael O'Laughlin, George A. Atzerodt, Mary E. Surratt, and Samuel Arnold; of this, not guilty.

And the commission does, therefore, sentence him the said Samuel A. Mudd, to be imprisoned at hard labor for life, at such penitentiary as the President of the United States shall designate.

II. The proceeding, findings, and sentences in the foregoing cases having ben submitted to the President of the United States, the following are his orders:

EXECUTIVE MANSION, July 5, 1865.

The foregoing sentences in the cases of David E. Herold, George A. Atzerodt, Lewis Payne, Michael O'Laughlin, Edward Spangler, Samuel Arnold, Mary E. Surratt, and Samuel A. Mudd are hereby approved, and it is ordered that the sentences in the cases of David E. Herold, G. A. Atzerodt, Lewis Payne, and Mary E. Surratt be carried into execution by the proper military authority, under the direction of the Secretary of War, on the 7th day of July, 1865, between the hours of 10 o'clock a. m. and 2 o'clock p. m. of that day. It is further ordered that the prisoners, Samuel Arnold, Samuel A. Mudd, Edward Spangler, and Michael O'Laughlin, be confined at hard labor in the penitentiary at Albany, N.Y., during the period designated in their respective sentences.

ANDREW JOHNSON,

President.

III. Major General W. S. Hancock, U.S. Volunteers, commanding Middle Military Division, is commanded to cause the foregoing sentences in the cases of David E. Herold, G. A. Atzerodt, Lewis Payne, and Mary E. Surratt to be duly executed in accordance with the President's order.

Friday, June 19, 2015

June 19, 1865: "Juneteenth"

Major General Gordon Granger, U.S. Army
On this day 150 years ago, Union Major General Gordon Granger stood on the balcony of Galveston, Texas' Ashton Villa and read aloud his "General Order No. 3", announcing the total emancipation of any and all slaves remaining in bondage in Texas. Granger's proclamation marked the end of chattel slavery in the United States and the anniversary of this day is now celebrated as "Juneteenth."
GENERAL ORDERS,

HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF TEXAS, Numbers 3.

Galveston, Tex., June 19, 1865.

The people of Texas are informed that, in accordance with a proclamation from the Executive of the United States, all slaves are free. This involves an absolute equality of personal rights and rights of property between former masters and slaves, and the connection heretofore existing between them becomes that between employer and hired labor. The freedman are advised to remain quietly at their present homes and work for wages. They are informed that they will not be allowed to collect at military posts and that they will not be supported in idleness either there or elsewhere.

By order of Major-General Granger:

F. W. EMERY,

Major and Assistant Adjutant-General.

Saturday, May 30, 2015

May 30, 1865: William T. Sherman says goodbye to his army


On this day 150 years ago, Major General William Tecumseh Sherman bid his army farewell in Special Field Orders No. 76.
[SPECIAL FIELD ORDERS NO. 76]

HEADQUARTERS MILITARY DIVISION OF THE MISSISSIPPI, IN THE FIELD, WASHINGTON, D.C. May 30, 1865

The general commanding announces to the Armies of the Tennessee and Georgia that the time has come for us to part. Our work is done, and armed enemies no longer defy us. Some of you will go to your homes, and others will be retained in military service till further orders.

And now that we are all about to separate, to mingle with the civil world, it becomes a pleasing duty to recall to mind the situation of national affairs when, but little more than a year ago, we were gathered about the cliffs of Lookout Mountain, and all the future was wrapped in doubt and uncertainty.

Three armies had come together from distant fields, with separate histories, yet bound by one common cause--the union of our country, and the perpetuation of the Government of our inheritance. There is no need to recall to your memories Tunnel Hill, with Rocky-Face Mountain and Buzzard-Roost Gap, and the ugly forts of Dalton behind.

We were in earnest, and paused not for danger and difficulty, but dashed through Snake-Creek Gap and fell on Resaca; then on to the Etowah, to Dallas, Kenesaw; and the heats of summer found us on the banks of the Chattahoochee, far from home, and dependent on a single road for supplies. Again we were not to be held back by any obstacle, and crossed over and fought four hard battles for the possession of the citadel of Atlanta. That was the crisis of our history. A doubt still clouded our future, but we solved the problem, destroyed Atlanta, struck boldly across the State of Georgia, severed all the main arteries of life to our enemy, and Christmas found us at Savannah.

Waiting there only long enough to fill our wagons, we again began a march which, for peril, labor, and results, will compare with any ever made by an organized army. The floods of the Savannah, the swamps of the Combahee and Edisto, the "high hills" and rocks of the Santee, the flat quagmires of the Pedee and Cape Fear Rivers, were all passed in midwinter, with its floods and rains, in the face of an accumulating enemy; and, after the battles of Averysboro' and Bentonsville, we once more came out of the wilderness, to meet our friends at Goldsboro'. Even then we paused only long enough to get new clothing, to reload our wagons, again pushed on to Raleigh and beyond, until we met our enemy suing for peace, instead of war, and offering to submit to the injured laws of his and our country. As long as that enemy was defiant, nor mountains nor rivers, nor swamps, nor hunger, nor cold, had checked us; but when he, who had fought us hard and persistently, offered submission, your general thought it wrong to pursue him farther, and negotiations followed, which resulted, as you all know, in his surrender.

How far the operations of this army contributed to the final overthrow of the Confederacy and the peace which now dawns upon us, must be judged by others, not by us; but that you have done all that men could do has been admitted by those in authority, and we have a right to join in the universal joy that fills our land because the war is over, and our Government stands vindicated before the world by the joint action of the volunteer armies and navy of the United States.

To such as remain in the service, your general need only remind you that success in the past was due to hard work and discipline, and that the same work and discipline are equally important in the future. To such as go home, he will only say that our favored country is so grand, so extensive, so diversified in climate, soil, and productions, that every man may find a home and occupation suited to his taste; none should yield to the natural impatience sure to result from our past life of excitement and adventure. You will be invited to seek new adventures abroad; do not yield to the temptation, for it will lead only to death and disappointment.

Your general now bids you farewell, with the full belief that, as in war you have been good soldiers, so in peace you will make good citizens; and if, unfortunately, new war should arise in our country, "Sherman's army" will be the first to buckle on its old armor, and come forth to defend and maintain the Government of our inheritance.

By order of Major-General W. T. Sherman,

L. M. DAYTON, Assistant Adjutant-General.

Friday, May 29, 2015

May 29, 1865: President Johnson proclaims a partial amnesty


Many Americans, North and South, were eager to move the process of bringing the South back into the Union along as quickly as possible. On this day 150 years ago, President Andrew Johnson issued the following proclamation offering amnesty to most Southerners, but excluding members of certain classes.
Proclamation 134 - Granting Amnesty to Participants in the Rebellion, with Certain Exceptions 
May 29, 1865

By the President of the United States of America
A Proclamation

Whereas the President of the United States, on the 8th day of December, A. D. 1863, and on the 26th day of March, A. D. 1864, did, with the object to suppress the existing rebellion, to induce all persons to return to their loyalty, and to restore the authority of the United States, issue proclamations offering amnesty and pardon to certain persons who had, directly or by implication, participated in the said rebellion; and

Whereas many persons who had so engaged in said rebellion have, since the issuance of said proclamations, failed or neglected to take the benefits offered thereby; and

Whereas many persons who have been justly deprived of all claim to amnesty and pardon thereunder by reason of their participation, directly or by implication, in said rebellion and continued hostility to the Government of the United States since the date of said proclamations now desire to apply for and obtain amnesty and pardon.

To the end, therefore, that the authority of the Government of the United States may be restored and that peace, order, and freedom may be established, I, Andrew Johnson, President of the United States, do proclaim and declare that I hereby grant to all persons who have, directly or indirectly, participated in the existing rebellion, except as hereinafter excepted, amnesty and pardon, with restoration of all rights of property, except as to slaves and except in cases where legal proceedings under the laws of the United States providing for the confiscation of property of persons engaged in rebellion have been instituted; but upon the condition, nevertheless, that every such person shall take and subscribe the following oath (or affirmation) and thenceforward keep and maintain said oath inviolate, and which oath shall be registered for permanent preservation and shall be of the tenor and effect following, to wit:

I,_________,do solemnly swear (or affirm, in presence of Almighty God, that I will henceforth faithfully support, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States and the Union of the States thereunder, and that I will in like manner abide by and faithfully support all laws and proclamations which have been made during the existing rebellion with reference to the emancipation of slaves. So help me God.

The following classes of persons are excepted from the benefits of this proclamation:

First. All who are or shall have been pretended civil or diplomatic officers or otherwise domestic or foreign agents of the pretended Confederate government.

Second. All who left judicial stations under the United States to aid the rebellion.

Third. All who shall have been military or naval officers of said pretended Confederate government above the rank of colonel in the army or lieutenant in the navy.

Fourth. All who left seats in the Congress of the United States to aid the rebellion.

Fifth. All who resigned or tendered resignations of their commissions in the Army or Navy of the United States to evade duty in resisting the rebellion.

Sixth. All who have engaged in any way in treating otherwise than lawfully as prisoners of war persons found in the United States service as officers, soldiers, seamen, or in other capacities.

Seventh. All persons who have been or are absentees from the United States for the purpose of aiding the rebellion.

Eighth. All military and naval officers in the rebel service who were educated by the Government in the Military Academy at West Point or the United States Naval Academy.

Ninth. All persons who held the pretended offices of governors of States in insurrection against the United States.

Tenth. All persons who left their homes within the jurisdiction and protection of the United States and passed beyond the Federal military lines into the pretended Confederate States for the purpose of aiding the rebellion.

Eleventh. All persons who have been engaged in the destruction of the commerce of the United States upon the high seas and all persons who have made raids into the United States from Canada or been engaged in destroying the commerce of the United States upon the lakes and rivers that separate the British Provinces from the United States.

Twelfth. All persons who, at the time when they seek to obtain the benefits hereof by taking the oath herein prescribed, are in military, naval, or civil confinement or custody, or under bonds of the civil, military, or naval authorities or agents of the United States as prisoners of war, or persons detained for offenses of any kind, either before or after conviction.

Thirteenth. All persons who have voluntarily participated in said rebellion and the estimated value of whose taxable property is over $20,000.

Fourteenth. All persons who have taken the oath of amnesty as prescribed in the President's proclamation of December 8, A. D. 1863, or an oath of allegiance to the Government of the United States since the date of said proclamation and who have not thenceforward kept and maintained the same inviolate.

Provided, That special application may be made to the President for pardon by any person belonging to the excepted classes, and such clemency will be liberally extended as may be consistent with the facts of the case and the peace and dignity of the United States.

The Secretary of State will establish rules and regulations for administering and recording the said amnesty oath, so as to insure its benefit to the people and guard the Government against fraud.

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of the United States to be affixed.

Done at the city of Washington, the 29th day of May, A. D. 1865, and of the Independence of the United States the eighty-ninth.

ANDREW JOHNSON.

By the President:

WILLIAM H. SEWARD,

Secretary of State.

Thursday, May 28, 2015

May 28, 1865: The shackling of Jefferson Davis ordered ended


On this day 150 years ago, Union Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton found out that Confederate President Jefferson Davis had, at some point after his arrival at Fortress Monroe, had his ankles placed into shackles. Davis had fought to avoid the procedure, which he regarded as degrading, but he was physically overpowered and shackled. Stanton ordered the shackles removed if Davis was still in them, and inquired as to the circumstances of Davis being shackled in the first place. The fortress' commander, Nelson A. Miles, responded.
WAR DEPARTMENT, Washington City, May 28, 1865.

Major-General MILES, Commanding, &c., Fort Monroe:

Please report whether irons have or have not been placed on Jefferson Davis. If they have been, when was it done, and for what reason, and remove them.

EDWIN M. STANTON,

Secretary of War.

FORT MONROE, VA., May 28, 1865-2.30 p. m.

Honorable EDWIN M. STANTON, Secretary of War:

I have the honor to state, in reply to your dispatch, that when Jeff. Davis was first confined in the casemate the inner doors were light wooden ones without locks. I directed anklets to be put upon his ankes, which would not interfere with his walking, but would prevent his running, should he endeavor to escape. In the meanime I have changed the wooden doors for granted ones with locks and the anklets have been removed. Every care is taken to avoid any pretense for complaint, as well as to prevent the possibility of his escape.

I remain, with the highest respect, your obedient servant,

N. A. MILES,

Brigadier-General.